Analysis of the cost of construction of a concrete slab in Kenya. Comparison between prefabricated and in situ.

Analysis of the cost of construction of a concrete slab in Kenya. Comparison between prefabricated and in situ.

Concrete slabs can either be constructed as prefabricated, meaning, they are fabricated off the site and transported to the site for erection.
Prefab concrete

They can also be cast in situ, meaning that a form work to retain the concrete mixture is set up and concrete is poured into the shape to form the slab.

Lets check out the costs for both situation.

In Situ concrete.

A concrete ratio of 1 to 3 to 6 for cement, sand and ballast produces class 15 concrete, mostly used in mass concrete to level out foundation footings.

A concrete ratio of 1 to 2 to 4 for cement, sand and ballast produces a much stronger class 20 concrete , mostly used for suspended slabs, beams and columns, which are self supporting.

In Kenya, the fundis and contractors mix 1 bag of cement to 3 wheelbarrows of sand to 4 wheelbarrows of ballast.

This is a ratio of 1 to 6 to 8.This is a weaker concrete strength than the recommended class 15 hence not suitable for high-rise buildings.

This can hold for light structures such as maisonettes. In the case where fundis and contractors don’t have engineering consultancy to guide them, they may mistakenly use the same ratio for a building with more than 2 storey levels, leading to building collapse.

In buildings higher than 2 storey levels, the fundis and contractors use buckets to measure.
The ratio is for 1.5 buckets of cement to 5 buckets of sand to 8 buckets of ballast for slabs and beams, which carry lesser weight than columns.
This makes out a ratio of 1 to 3.3 to 5.3, which is closer to class 15 concrete strength.

For columns, the cement ratio is increased to 2 buckets of cement , 5 buckets of sand and 8 buckets of ballast.
This makes out a ratio of 1 to 2.5 to 4, close to class 20 concrete strength recommended.

In this case, lets work out the costs using the recommended ratio of 1 to 2 to 4 for high rise structures.

We will assume a 1m2 surface of concrete slab, 150mm thick.

This surface has a volume of 1m x 1m x 0.15m=0.15m3.

This volume has the below volume of sand, cement and ballast.


Cement volume=0.15m3 x 1/7=0.021 m3 of cement.
Weight of 0.021m3 of cement.
Cement density is assumed to be 1,500 kg per m3.
0.021m3 of cement will weight 32kg.

A 50kg bag of cement costs kes 700.
32kg of cement will cost kes 448.

Sand volume=0.15m3 x 2/7=0.043 m3 of cement.
Weight of 0.043m3 of cement.
Sand density is assumed to be 2,000 kg per m3 when wet.
0.043m3 of sand will weight 86kg.

A tonne of sand costs kes 2000.
86kg of cement will cost kes 172.


Ballast volume=0.15m3 x 4/7=0.086 m3 of cement.
Weight of 0.086m3 of cement.
Ballast density is assumed to be 2,000 kg per m3 when wet.
0.086m3 of ballast will weight 172kg.

A tonne of ballast costs kes 2000.
172kg of cement will cost kes 344.

Total cost.
Total concrete cost will be cost of cement,sand ballast =kes 964 per m2 pf concrete.
Add cost of water and labor, say 30%=kes 1,250 per m2.

Add cost of steel reinforcement.
Assuming a bottom reinforcement of Y10 at 200 mm centre to centre and top reinforcement of Y8 at 200mm centre to centre, this will be as follows

12 Meters long @ kes 600 per 12 meter length.=kes 600

12 meters long at kes 400 per 12 meter lenght=kes 400

Cost of steel per m2 of slab=kes 1,000.

Cost of steel plus concrete=kes 2,250 per m2.

Cost of formwork.

Formwork can be hired or purchased.
In case of purchase, Grivellia timber is mostly used.

This is because the wood from this tree tends to warp and crack hence cheap compared to cypruss which is more expensive and more long lasting.

Grivellia wood 6 x 1 foot costs kes 21 compared to cypress at kes 34 per foot for the same length.

Grivellia can only be used for formwork once.

In a 1m2 slab, this will cost as below.
6 inches convert to 0.25m
1 foot converts to 0.3m
6 X 1 Timber has a surface of 0.075m2, costing kes 21.

1m2 surface will cost kes 280.
Add labour and nails, say 30%=kes 360 per m2.

The total cost of in situ concrete slab will now become kes 2,250 plus kes 360=kes 2,610 per m2.

Cost of prefabricated concrete slabs.

The selling price for eco slab prefabricated slabs is kes 1,600 per m2.Add cost of cement screed to level the surfaces and plaster at the bottom part of the slab. This estimates to kes 2000k per m2.


Casting the slab in situ is at a higher cost than buying prefabricated slabs.

Francis Gichuhi Kamau, Architect.

Francis Gichuhi (692 Posts)

Architect Francis Gichuhi . B.Arch. University of Nairobi. Registered Architect, Kenya. Member, Architectural Association of Kenya. Contacts. email Telephone +254721410684


  36 comments for “Analysis of the cost of construction of a concrete slab in Kenya. Comparison between prefabricated and in situ.

    May 20, 2014 at 11:54 am

    Morning George,
    Am looking for suppliers of precast slab in Kenya.
    Any leads?


    • Gathoni Kimani
      August 1, 2014 at 7:55 pm


      Would you by any chance know where I could purchase bulk slubs for foundation and what could be the price range per slub?

      Am also looking for cheaper building leads

      Thanks & regards

    • Ahmed
      May 29, 2016 at 8:21 am

      Pre cast slabs also available all pre cast products culverts road kerbs, channel’s, idb ,fencing posts welcome.

      • karuga Elizaphan
        July 4, 2016 at 5:06 am

        how much is one concrete fencing post?

        Kind regards,

        Karuga Elizaphan

        • Bernard Nyaga
          August 16, 2016 at 7:27 am

          I manufacture concrete posts, concrete wall panels and other prefabricated concrete products.
          The prices for concrete fencing posts are as listed below:
          7ft @ 1450
          8ft @ 1588
          9ft @ 1661
          10ft @ 1260
          11ft @ 2256
          12ft @ 2277

          • Heyzoal
            January 25, 2017 at 3:24 am

            Hi please i nid more info on prefab wall

          • Virginia
            August 1, 2017 at 1:07 pm

            what about concrete wall panels

          • Nduta
            September 18, 2017 at 5:22 pm

            How much does a pre-fab concrete panel cost

          • sam
            October 31, 2017 at 5:54 pm

            kindly WhatsApp me on 0713943000 we talk businesses

      • Naim
        August 15, 2016 at 6:18 pm

        Hi I’m interested can you send me more information please.

      • Al
        August 22, 2016 at 3:16 pm


        I am doing some research prior to starting my project. My pre-fab slab will be 10m X 10m. Can you estimate a price?

    • April 12, 2017 at 1:12 pm

      At Silk Road International Trading Company, we import and sell precast slabs.

    • Eng. Muriuki JM
      June 26, 2017 at 4:57 pm

      In situ concreting is easier and simpler than precast coz, we don’t have machinery to do the work, so we adopt and adapt manual way

  2. Michael Muturi
    June 10, 2014 at 12:45 am

    Contact engineers ltd they have offices at ruiru

  3. sam
    August 18, 2014 at 7:01 pm

    How much u selling y8 n y 10

  4. Waringa kamau
    September 26, 2014 at 2:20 pm

    Hi, what are the different types of masonry designs and and approximate cost?

  5. Edward Waboer
    September 28, 2014 at 6:25 pm

    Can the prefabricated Slabs be used for internal walling?

  6. Waga
    January 13, 2015 at 5:34 pm

    I want to put in situ slab 150mm. The area is 15ft by 25ft. What would be the tentative total cost including timber for shuttering. Is it cheaper to contract a fundi to deliver me a finished slab of the above dimensions because they normally have their timber for shuttering which they carry away after curing.

  7. niRobinson Mog
    April 22, 2015 at 7:48 am

    where can I buy the precast slab you have pictured above? and at hoe much.

  8. joseph kimari
    June 23, 2015 at 11:55 pm

    please can you advance where to interlock bricks in nairobi area their details and prices thank you

  9. Esau Kabui
    July 13, 2015 at 2:07 pm

    Good advice architect. Such posts especially from Kenyans rare but much needed.
    I trained in Building Construction (Diploma) but over the years I have learnt my gifting and passion is in Architecture. I am looking for a place I can study in the evenings but no success yet. I want to join you in this practice. Any help or advice? Desperately needed.

    • Rooney Muteti
      April 5, 2017 at 2:59 pm

      I’m studying Dip. Arch at N.I.T westlands. They offer two diploma options: one examined by KNEC which is a little lengthy and the other is offered by JKUAT. The mode of learning is FULL TIME due to the a lot of studio work involved.

  10. Wicliff
    November 6, 2015 at 1:45 pm

    I really like you posts about construction as they really help me since I am also in the Architectural department but just a technician. I would really like for you to show on how one can get the cost for columns and beams per m3

  11. January 15, 2016 at 11:32 am

    we offer commercial and industrial scaffolding services in Kenya and throughout Eastern Africa. Whether you require a simple tower and access platform for a small building job or a complex scaffold system for a major building project, refinery, or mine site, we can create a scaffolding solution to meet your requirements, at very reasonable rates. As one of our scaffolding specialities, we have a vast inventory of scaffolding products and equipment available for projects of all sizes. We can also supply experienced scaffolders and project managers to ensure your scaffold is designed, erected, maintained, and dismantled safely and in a timely manner.

  12. Brian Kibiwot
    February 1, 2016 at 8:47 am

    Your calculation for the ratios are wrong. I think cement do noy contribute to volume….. so use 1/6 instead of 1/7

  13. DONALD
    June 21, 2016 at 7:16 am

    Hi Francis,

    I like your article, it is very informative. Kindly advice where i can get prefabricated slabs within Nairobi at a good cost because i have a construction going on somewhere a long Kangundo road and my wish is to move in that house by 1st Sept,2016 which i think is too soon considering the fact that i have not even done a slab. Therefore my only hope to enable me meet this deadline is by using prefabricated slab which i do not know where to get a good quality one at a good price. Could you please advise .

    Thank you in advance



  14. Mary
    June 26, 2016 at 8:57 pm

    I supply at the best prices:

    Y8 – Ksh. 450
    Y10 – Ksh. 650
    Y12 – Ksh. 900
    Y16 – Ksh. 1,500

  15. October 29, 2016 at 8:37 am

    I would like to visit the place where the slabs are sold ,please direct me

  16. Antony Macharia
    November 10, 2016 at 8:31 am

    I think your analysis is great commendable job; however abit misleading heres why:
    1. The total cost of in situ concrete slab will now become kes 2,250 plus kes 360=kes 2,610 per m2.
    2. The selling price for eco slab prefabricated slabs is kes 1,600 per m2. Add cost of cement screed to level the surfaces and plaster at the bottom part of the slab. This estimates to kes 2000k per m2. (a 30% difference)

    You have not factored in form work mainly props at 600 spacing, 100x50mm timber bearers; beam-rib steelwork; concrete cover 75mm over precast and 150mm beam ribs and labour-the main items we save on is boarding/prapers) Noting also that new technology is usually expensive due to the slower learning curve and that the finished precast would cost abit more than concrete insitu) the comparative would tilt infavour of onsite concrete-ing for smaller projects/single slabs and the real benefits acrrue on larger sites due to reuse of materials.

    However with many more people venturing to alternative construction methods then the client can benefit from value addition based on competitive pricing.

    Design-Build Contractor

  17. brooks nandwa
    November 11, 2016 at 1:48 am

    where can i get them

    March 3, 2017 at 10:23 am


    • Andree
      April 11, 2017 at 6:31 am

      How much cost Your materials supply within ruiru and kerugoya .. sand, hardcore, stone, ballast(kagoto).

  19. kingsley etafo
    May 6, 2017 at 8:47 am

    in construction site where to determine price of concrete 0 m level 15$ per m3 to 30 m level height of a building, what is price or rate? what % to apply.

  20. isaac
    June 1, 2017 at 9:10 am

    whats the current price of high beam 254*102?

    August 2, 2017 at 8:24 am


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